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Bilateral Contract


A bilateral contract is a type of agreement in financial or legal contexts where all parties involved are obligated to fulfill certain conditions. It essentially involves a mutual exchange of promises, where each party is both a promisor and a promisee. Both parties are thus legally bound to carry out the actions stipulated in the contract.


The phonetics of the keyword “Bilateral Contract” is: Bilateral – /baɪˈlætərəl/Contract – /kənˈtrækt/

Key Takeaways


  1. Mutual Agreement: A bilateral contract is a legal agreement between two parties where each party agrees to fulfill their respective obligations stated in the contract. This means both parties are legally bound to perform their duties under the contract.
  2. Promise for a Promise: A significant characteristic of a bilateral contract is that it is formed by an exchange of promises. Both parties are effectively ‘promise makers’ and ‘promise receivers.’ The fulfilment of the contract is contingent on both parties living up to their promises.
  3. Enforcement and Breach: Like other contracts, the terms of a bilateral contract are enforceable by law. If one party fails to fulfill its part of the contract, it can be held legally liable for breach of contract, leading to possible compensations or legal repercussions.



A Bilateral Contract is a significant concept in business and finance as it forms the foundation of most commercial and personal transactions. It is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties, where each party is obligated to fulfill certain promises or actions. Each entity involved has made a promise that the other party can expect to be carried out. It facilitates trust, mitigates risk, and ensures mutual understanding as it clarifies obligations, rights, and expectations. They are significant in supporting and safeguarding economic activities, development, trades, and partnerships in every sector, from property sales to service provision, enhancing the predictability and security of transactions.


Bilateral contracts are fundamental to most commercial interactions because they enable transactions that involve a reciprocal exchange of value among parties. Its chief purpose is to establish a commercial agreement in which each party agrees to fulfill its end of the deal, offering a legitimate claim for a remedy should there be a breach in contract. From an organizational perspective, bilateral contracts underpin healthy relationships with vendors, customers, employees, and other stakeholders. For instance, a company may enter a bilateral contract with a supplier, where the company agrees to purchase a particular quantity of goods, and the supplier agrees to deliver them at an agreed-upon price. Similarly, employment contracts are also typically bilateral, whereby an employee commits to providing services, and in return, the employer agrees to compensate them, as per the terms agreed. Thus, by delineating obligations and expectations, bilateral contracts encourage business efficacy and contribute to predictable, ordered market environments.


1. Real Estate Sales: A common example of a bilateral contract in the real estate industry is the agreement between a home seller and a buyer. The buyer agrees to pay a specified amount for the property, while the seller agrees to deliver the property title to the buyer. Both parties are obligated to fulfill their parts of the agreement.2. Employment Agreements: In an employment contract, there is a clear bilateral agreement between an employer and an employee, where the employer promises to pay a stated salary and the employee promises to perform specified duties. Both parties are obliged to respect and fulfill these commitments.3. Supply Contracts: These are agreements between a supplier and a business where the supplier agrees to provide a specific amount of goods to the business at a predetermined price, and the business agrees to purchase the goods. For instance, a restaurant may have a bilateral contract with a food distributor to receive weekly supplies of particular food items for a certain price.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Bilateral Contract?

A bilateral contract is a type of contract that involves promises made by all parties involved. Each party is both a promisor and a promisee. An example of this is when one party agrees to sell their house, and the other agrees to buy it at the agreed price.

Are all contracts bilateral?

No, not all contracts are bilateral. Other types of contracts include unilateral contracts, in which only one party makes a promise in exchange for an action or forbearance from the other party.

In what fields are bilateral contracts commonly used?

Bilateral contracts are widely used across many fields, including real estate, finance, law, and business at large. For instance, common examples of bilateral contracts would be a lease for an apartment or a contract to purchase goods.

What is required for a bilateral contract to be valid?

For a bilateral contract to be valid, there must be a clear offer and acceptance, consideration (something of value exchanged), mutual assent, capacity (parties must be able to enter a contract), and the contract must be for a legal purpose.

Can a bilateral contract be broken?

Yes, like any contract, a bilateral contract can be broken, or breached. If one party fails to fulfill their obligations as agreed in the contract, the other party may be entitled to legal remedies, such as damages.

What’s the distinction between a bilateral and unilateral contract?

The main difference lies in the number of people making promises. In a bilateral contract, both parties promise to perform certain actions. In a unilateral contract, one party makes a promise, and the other party fulfills an action.

Is an employment contract a bilateral contract?

Yes, an employment contract is usually a form of bilateral contract. This is because the employer promises to pay the employee a certain amount of money in exchange for the employee’s promise to perform certain services.

What is mutual assent in a bilateral contract?

Mutual assent means that all parties involved in the contract understand and agree to the basic substance and terms of the contract. It’s often referred to as a meeting of the minds.

Related Finance Terms

  • Consideration
  • Performance
  • Agreement
  • Breach of Contract
  • Offer and Acceptance

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