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Agency Problem


The agency problem refers to a conflict of interest that arises between people in different roles, usually managers and shareholders in a corporation. Shareholders want the company to perform well to boost the value of their investments, while managers may have personal goals that conflict with this aim. Thus, the problem lies in the potential divergence of interests between managers (or ‘agents’) and the owners or shareholders.


The phonetic spelling of “Agency Problem” is:/eɪdʒənsi ˈprɒbləm/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Conflicting Interests: The agency problem typically arises in a business setting when individuals’ (the agent’s) interests do not align with the company’s (the principal’s) interests. The agent may take actions that benefit themselves at the potential expense of the principal.
  2. Information Asymmetry: A significant part of the agency problem is due to information asymmetry – when an agent has more or better information than the principal. This asymmetry can lead the agent to exploit their position to the principal’s disadvantage.
  3. Managing the Agency Problem: There are several ways to manage or mitigate the agency problem. These include establishing strong corporate governance structures, developing incentive schemes for agents to align their interests with those of the principals, and implementing rigorous monitoring and control systems.

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The agency problem is important in business/finance because it deals with the conflict of interest that can occur when agents, such as a company’s executives or managers, are motivated to act in their own best interests rather than those of the principals or shareholders. This could lead to mismanagement of company resources, poor decision-making or unethical actions, all of which can potentially harm the company’s performance and value. By understanding the agency problem, measures such as performance-based incentives, increased transparency or tighter governance controls can be implemented to align the interests of managers with those of shareholders, ultimately promoting healthier and more sustainable businesses.


The purpose of the agency problem is to bring attention and resolution to the conflicts of interest that may arise between individuals with different motivations, common in company structures where ownership and management are separated. These parties include shareholders (principals) and the managers (agents) they hire to run daily operations. In theory, both these parties aim for the company’s success but in practice, their personal objectives can diverge, leading to suboptimal outcomes for the company. Quite commonly, the managers, motivated by personal rewards, could potentially take actions that might benefit them in the short term but be harmful for the shareholders’ interests. The agency problem is used in the realm of corporate finance and governance to identify and mitigate such conflicts of interest. This is achieved through the implementation of various principles and mechanisms, such as compensation contracts for managers linked to the firm’s performance, regular audits, and legal measures. By aligning the interests of the principals and agents, these mitigations help achieve a more balanced and efficient operation of the company, with decisions made more in line with the overall company’s long-term growth and profitability, thereby benefiting all stakeholders.


1. Enron Corporation Scandal: One of the most noteworthy examples of the agency problem in the 2000s involved the energy company Enron. Executives and other insiders at Enron used accounting loopholes and special purpose entities to hide debt and inflate earnings, which increased the value of their own stock options. Despite this fraudulent activity, the executives were able to convince the board of directors and shareholders that the company was in good financial health. Once the financial irregularities were exposed, the company declared bankruptcy, and shareholders lost billions of dollars. This is an example of the agency problem because the executives, acting as agents of the shareholders, acted in their own best interest at the expense of the shareholders.2. Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy: In 2008, Lehman Brothers, a global financial services firm, filed for bankruptcy, marking the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history. Prior to its bankruptcy, Lehman Brothers’ management had invested significantly in mortgage-backed securities, exposing the company to the impending subprime mortgage crisis. Unfortunately, the risks were not fully communicated to shareholders, leading to significant financial losses when the real estate market collapsed. This scenario is an illustration of the agency problem, where the managers, acting as the agents of the shareholders, did not adequately represent the shareholders’ interests.3. The Wells Fargo Fake Accounts Scandal: In 2016, Wells Fargo, one of the largest banks in the United States, faced a scandal where employees opened as many as two million accounts in customers’ names without their consent. The employees were under pressure to meet unrealistic sales targets, encouraged by the management’s incentives, and they resorted to illegal means to achieve those targets. This incident once again showcases the agency problem where employees, acting as agents for the bank and its shareholders, behaved unethically and against the customers’ interest to serve their own interests.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Agency Problem?

The Agency problem refers to a conflict of interest that can occur when a person or entity is expected to act on behalf of another person or entity. These conflicts primarily happen when the principal’s interests aren’t perfectly aligned with those of the agent.

Can you provide an example of an Agency Problem?

An example of an agency problem would be when a company’s shareholders (principals) expect the company’s CEO (agent) to make decisions that will increase shareholder value, but the CEO instead takes decisions that maximize their own personal wealth.

How do Agency Problems affect businesses?

Agency problems can potentially lead to inefficient business outcomes, loss of trust among stakeholders, and can even encourage dishonest behavior from agents if left unchecked.

How can businesses minimize the Agency Problem?

Businesses can minimize agency problems through establishing strong corporate governance, crafting well-aligned incentive structures, and maintaining transparent communication between the principals and agents.

What is the role of financial managers in reducing the impact of the Agency Problem?

Financial managers can work to align the company’s financial goals and incentives with the interests of shareholders, create structures for oversight and accountability, and promote transparency in financial reporting.

Does the Agency Problem exist only in businesses?

No, agency problems can occur in several types of relationships, not just businesses. They can occur wherever there is a relationship involving a principal and an agent, such as between politicians (agents) and citizens (principals), or between a lawyer (agent) and a client (principal), just to mention a few.

What is ‘agency cost’?

Agency cost refers to the financial costs incurred to mitigate the potential for an agency problem, such as monitoring costs, bonding costs, and the cost of the potential risk that an agent will not act in the best interest of the principal.

What are common strategies to mitigate the Agency Problem?

Some common strategies include providing performance-based incentives for agents, imposing strict regulations and standards, creating a strong system of checks and balances within the organization, and ensuring a high level of transparency in operations and decision-making.

Is the Agency Problem a modern concept?

While the term ‘agency problem’ is relatively modern, the concept itself is as old as the principal-agent relationship. The idea of conflicts of interest and moral hazard has been understood and recognized for centuries.

: How does the Agency Problem affect the average investor?

: For the average investor, the agency problem can mean earning less return on their investment if the interests of the company’s management (agents) are not fully aligned with the interests of the shareholders (principals).

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