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Adjusted Present Value (APV)


Adjusted Present Value (APV) is a valuation method that separates the value of an investment into two components: the value of the investment without any financing (unleveraged) and the value of financing. Essentially, APV is the Net Present Value (NPV) of an entity assuming it is fully equity financed plus the Present Value (PV) of the financing benefits. The financing benefits may include tax shields like those provided by interest tax deductions.


The phonetics for “Adjusted Present Value (APV)” are: uh-juhs-ted preh-zuhnt val-yoo (APV)

Key Takeaways

Adjusted Present Value (APV) has three key takeaways:

  1. Comprehensive Valuation: APV provides a comprehensive valuation of a business entity. It accounts for the opportunity costs of capital investments, uses separate discount rates for tax shields and unleveraged cash flows, and considers both the debt and equity proportions of capital structures.
  2. Flexibility: APV is flexible, allowing for the easy incorporation of more complex investment situations, such as changing debt levels or tax rates. It can be effective when considering various scenarios, making it a versatile tool for financial analysis.
  3. Adjustments for Debt Financing: One of the most distinguishing features of APV is its explicit account for the impacts of debt financing. It separates the value of a project into two—debt and equity—and presents a clearer view of how different financing choices might alter a project’s value.


The concept of Adjusted Present Value (APV) is pivotal in business and finance as it provides a comprehensive method for valuation. This approach allows for the evaluation of a proposed investment separate from its financing implications, thereby informing business leaders about the intrinsic worth of the undertaking. It takes into account the base-case scenario value of the asset or business if it were entirely equity-financed, in addition to the present value of the side effects of alternative financing decisions. This includes tax shields, subsidies, grants, and costs of financial distress. Through this, APV uncovers the total financial effects of financing decisions. Therefore, understanding APV is essential for making informed and profitable investment and financing decisions.


Adjusted Present Value (APV) is a comprehensive financial tool used by businesses in evaluating investment decisions, specifically the profitability of a potential investment or a project. The purpose of AVP method is two-fold: firstly, it allows businesses to understand the value of an investment if it were entirely equity-financed, or without borrowing any funds; secondly, it estimates the value of any financial benefits arising from financing the project with debt, such as tax shields or increased return on investment. The APV is primarily applicable in situations where the company’s capital structure or debt level is anticipated to change over the life of the project. For instance, investment appraisal in the case of a leveraged buyout, considering the company’s evolving debt levels, is an apt scenario for the use of the APV approach. By separately evaluating the business risks and financing risks linked with an investment, the APV helps businesses in making sound financial decisions. It aids in recognizing the precise impact of debt on the company’s returns, thereby, supporting informed decisions about the optimal financing mix for the project.


1. **Expansion of a Business:** A popular restaurant chain is considering opening an additional location. They would evaluate the APV of the potential venue by looking at the projected cash flows, the initial investment required, and the rate of return. The APV would help determine if the new venture would add value to the entire business or not.2. **Real Estate Investment:** A real estate developer is evaluating a potential high-rises building project. The APV strategy could be used to calculate the value of the project by incorporating the initial investment, expected cash inflows such as rental income, and the applicable interest rate or cost of capital. The APV will give the present value of the project considering the total cost of financing.3. **Merger & Acquisition:** A large automotive company is considering acquiring a smaller competitor. The large company would use APV to estimate the total worth of the smaller company, taking into consideration the costs of acquiring and merging operations, the present values of future net cash flows, and the value brought by the strategic advantage of the acquisition.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Adjusted Present Value (APV)?

Adjusted Present Value (APV) is a financial computation that measures a projected investment’s net present value, adjusted for the market value of debt and linked financial risk. It’s used in capital budgeting decisions.

How is APV calculated?

APV is calculated by adding the base-case net present value of the investment opportunity with the present value of the financing effect (this could be tax shields, costs of issuance of debt or financial distress costs).

Is APV the same as Net Present Value (NPV)?

Not exactly. Though both methods discount cash flows to the present, APV provides a more complex analysis by assessing the value of an investment project independent of any financial considerations, and then adjusts for the present value of the financial effects.

When is it ideal to use APV?

APV is ideally used when a project’s level of debt is fluid or the interest deductions from debt are inconsistent, or when the capital structure of the project is changing over time.

Can APV be negative?

Yes. Just like any other form of net present value calculations, APV can be negative. This indicates that the project’s costs exceed its benefits, giving a signal that the investment might not be worthwhile.

What is a financial effect in terms of APV?

A financial effect in APV refers to any benefits or disadvantages resulting from financing decisions. These could include interest tax shields, costs of issuing securities, financial distress costs, etc.

What is the base-case NPV in APV calculation?

The base-case NPV is the net present value of the project or investment as if it was all-equity financed or devoid of any financial effects. It represents the pure, intrinsic value of the investment without any debt or associated costs.

What advantages does APV have over other financial valuation methods?

APV provides a more comprehensive analysis of a project’s value by separately evaluating the underlying investment and financing effects. This makes APV more versatile in situations with complex capital structures or varying debt levels.

Related Finance Terms

  • Net Present Value (NPV)
  • Risk Free Rate of Return
  • Unlevered Cost of Equity
  • Tax Shield from Interest Expenses
  • Present Value of Debt

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